Research Institute, Bhopal
The State of Madhya Pradesh has been reorganised
many times changing its boundaries. One phenomenon has, however, remained
unchanged in that it always has had the largest population of the Scheduled
Tribes as compared to any other state in the country. Even after the present
reorganisation carving out Chhattisgarh as a separate state, Madhya Pradesh
comprises 96.27 lakhs Scheduled Tribe population.
Tribal Scenario of Madhya Pradesh
Tribal population of Madhya Pradesh can be divided into many categories according to their area of habitat. As per Madhya Pradesh reorganisation Act of 18th September, 2000, tribes like Gonds and Bhils have large population whereas tribes like Andh, Birhor have a negligible population. After reorganisation, the tribal area of Madhya Pradesh can be divided into four main zones as follows:-
1. Western Cultural Zone: Districts of Ratlam, Jhabua, Dhar, Barwani, Khargone, Khandwa, Harda, Dewas and Indore fall under this zone. The main tribes residing in this zone are Bhil, Bhilala, Barela and Patelia.
2. Central Cultural Zone: This zone comprises of Mandla, Dindori, Balaghat, Seoni, Chhindwara, Jabalpur, Katni, Narsimhapur, Sagar, Damoh, Umaria, Sehore and Bhopal. The main tribes residing in this zone are Gond, Pardhan, Korku, Baiga, Bharia, Nagarachi and Ojha.
3. North-Eastern Cultural Zone: Districts of Shahdol, Sidhi, Rewa, Satna, Panna, Chhatarpur, Guna and Tikamgar fall under this zone. Kol, Biar, Panika, Sour and Pav are the main tribes residing in this zone.
4. North-Western Cultural Zone: This zone consists of Morena, Shivpuri, Sheopur, Datia, Gwalior and Bhind districts. The main tribe residing in this zone is Seharia. Three Special Primitive Tribal Groups - Bharia (Patalkot, Chhindwara), Baiga (Umaria, Shahdol, Dindori, Balaghat and Mandla) and Seharia (Shivpuri, Sheopur, Guna, Gwalior, Morena) reside in Madhya Pradesh.
With a view of total development of tribals, State Government established the Tribal Research Institute at District headquarters of Chhindwara in the year 1954 which was transferred to State Capital at Bhopal in the year 1965. The Institute conducts ethnographic and anthropological, evaluation and survey studies on various aspects of tribal life, culture, economy and educational status of tribals. In addition, the Institute is also engaged in the activities of conservation and protection of Tribal Culture. Various other activities of the Institute are shown as follows.
In this centre, officers of different development departments posted in tribal sub-plan areas of the State are imparted reorientation training about whole tribal scenario. In addition to this, Revenue and Police Officers, entrusted with the work of issuing caste certificates are imparted training about all aspects of caste verification. The Institute is headed by a Director who is an I.A.S. officer of the rank of Secretary to Government. For smooth functioning of the Institute, there are two Committees viz., Tribal Research Institute's Advisory Committee headed by Minister of the department and standing committee headed by Principal Secretary of the department.
Other facilities available in the Institute
About 20,500 books on Anthropology, Sociology, Linguistic, Ethnography, Economics, Museulogy, Hindi Literature, History, Psychology, Law, Research books, Encyclopaedia and many Dictionaries etc. are available in the library. In addition Bulletins published by other institutions and research reports related to tribals conducted by different universities are also available in the library
Research Fellowship :
Scheme of Research fellowship is being run for the research scholars doing their research on the matters relating to tribals by Government of India, Ministry of Tribal Affairs through the Tribal Research Institute. Under this scheme, Rs. 2800 p.m. for Ph.D. and Rs. 3200 p.m. for D. Lit. is given. To assist research work, there is a Computer Section which collects secondary data. Cartography and General Sections of Institute help research workers by providing Maps, Write-ups, Diagrams etc.
Tribal Museum :
A State level tribal museum named Shri Badal Bhoi State Tribal Museum is also functioning under Tribal Research Institute since 1954 at Chhindwara where about 2135 artifacts relating to various aspects of Tribal life, their culture, religion etc. are displayed which include 46 photographs and paintings, 10 maps and charts, 51 models and wall paintings (numbering about 1911). Similarly, a mini museums at Institute Headquarters Bhopal, is also established where about 1000 artifacts are displayed. A new tribal museum at Shyamla Hills, Bhopal on an area of 7 acres land is being established shortly.
Research, Evaluation studies and Publication :
Ethnographic studies are continuously conducted by the Institute and in this context evaluation and survey work is also conducted. Apart from publication of these studies and statistical data, a six-monthly bulletin is also published by the Institute. Up till now, 330 publications including 194 evaluation studies, 25 survey reports, 63 ethnographic studies and 48 publication on other subject have been published. Similarly, the Institute has published books named "Tulsi ke Birwa Jagay", Pandwani - Pardhan Geet Katha,Vol. 1,2,3,4, Ramayani, Gondwani Geet Katha - 3 Nos. and books in 5 tribal dialects (Gondi, Bhili, Korku, Halbi and Kudukh) have also been published. In addition to this, a prestigious book of about 256 pictorial pages, named "Tribal Heritage - Madhya Pradesh" is under publication in which different aspects of tribal life are displayed. Vanya Prakashan is also attached with this Institute. Vanya Prakashan publishes books on tribal life, culture etc.